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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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submitted by Chtorrr to Chtorrr

240+ issues I have with the game

First, I want to thank you all who got involved in this extremely hard work and time-consuming list. Second, to be very clear, I've only focused on the gameplay issues that are impacting our experience (nothing minor or any visual that doesn't affect your gameplay like clipping texture or lighting effects) All of the aforementioned issues are up to date despite that some are posted a year ago (some occurs from launch actually) They are not listed in any severity order, you may find big ones at the end of the list too. I am also sure there are many other gameplay issues that I probably missed (some that occur daily while others that are very rare / once in a lifetime). I've tried to include more the one video for them to show that they are not having some random and rare occurrence. I don't say the game should be perfect, bugless because no other game is bugless but having countless bugs... just come on, this is beyond acceptable.
Edit: I know you'd say ok these are small issues and game-breaking bugs... I totally agree with that but imagine having 2-3 game-breaking bugs that you could avoid instead of having 10-20 happening every game/round you play.
Edit2: I've read all the comments and a few people said that there are a lot of things that are not bugs like heroes don't have a health bar when they zoom in or the fact that you can play up to 20 players in a single party! These are for sure not bugs but definitely bad designs that need to be fixed. And there were only about 10 of such issues basically the 95% are all bugs.
Full list of all current 240 gameplay issues from the game (Xbox / PS4 / PC):
1) Players remain in standing position after getting killed by Anakin or luke power abilities https://youtu.be/MHCmlBkJ13Y 2) Rocket missile does not lock and damage the AT-M6 (they do for AT-Ats or any other vehicle) https://youtu.be/-Sqdl1kMdG0 3) You don’t get any battle points if the round transition catches you in the spawn screen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RroxOj_lyg 4) AT-ST receives a lot of damage from friendly starfighter ships https://youtu.be/WV3oHODF-74 5) The scope of the S5 is missing when shooting in first person https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/a7z5uk/dc15le_s5_zooming_bug/ 6) The AT-ST's Grenade Launcher works only 1/2 time (Crait, Takada and Ajan Kloss) https://youtu.be/6K5VTU5Z6hI https://youtu.be/_wB_lLMbdZQ https://youtu.be/JfvICD89rsw 7) On supremacy, you don’t get any scoring points if you shoot the objective with a vanguard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhFPZOx8Cwc 8) The enhanced zoom attachment for the DC-15LE will sometimes bug out after the usage of Barrage. https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/a7z5uk/dc15le_s5_zooming_bug/ https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fen6gs/has_anyone_else_experienced_a_bug_for_the_heavys/ 9) Unable to mute from party (PC - for the players that join late to the party) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=619s 10) On Kamino, you cannot fly under the platforms with the ARC-170 because you crash by an invisible wall https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/e37dk5/invisible_walls_in_the_air_on_kamino_only_fo 11) Ion Torpedo locks on a different vehicle if two vehicles are close to each one https://youtu.be/FnAyuctySwA https://youtu.be/9zCTAspRrfw 12) Hero dialogues are still glitched https://battlefront-forums.ea.com/discussion/102229/all-hero-dialogue-that-is-glitched 13) Palpatine cannot drain Yoda's blocking stamina at all https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShaRbT4HQds& 14) Vader (especially) brutally shakes other player's camera when they are chocked https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g5ct0x/star_wars_shakefront_2/ https://youtu.be/_EJT00F7FCA 15) Unrelated advance does not block (shots or lightsabers) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fn6jah/look_what_theyve_done_to_our_boy_griev_fix/ https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fn6jah/look_what_theyve_done_to_our_boy_griev_fix/ 16) Xbox still has that aim drift issue https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/c7fqvf/thank_you_aim_drift_very_cool_please_fix/?st=jy9shytm&sh=a61e0fcd https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/cf18dt/attention_dice_this_is_how_bad_xbox_aim_drift_can/?st=jy9si92h&sh=a3eae707 17) All ground vehicles show that they are spawnable when in fact you can't spawn on https://youtu.be/mOdfGcRZq1c 18) ATST nameplate is at the feet of the vehicle https://youtu.be/rA3zR9AuEkQ 19) The specialist does not reveal the enemies on the radar https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fooz4y/monthly_reminder_that_2_out_of_3_default/ 20) Specialist binocular is broken too https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fooz4y/monthly_reminder_that_2_out_of_3_default/ 21) Characters randomly jump all over the maps https://youtu.be/nxi4QGsqMew 22) An exploit on GA Jakku allows players to clip under the transport ship during the last phase and disable any explosives planted. https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/cd4yv4/dice_plz_this_needs_to_be_fixed_jakku_is/?st=jy9ssiqd&sh=7c8e2c46 23) Unable to spawn with the vehicle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfmeiTgP8ow 24) PC only - Setting all effects quality to medium will make concussed effects easy to see-through. 25) The HVV spawn screen is bugged and will sometimes not allow you to pick your previous hero http://shorturl.at/jmosw 26) Scan abilities like scan-dart/infiltration/etc are inconsistent. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RrYnRhgHn2c& 27) Rey/Chewbacca/Han/Obi-Wan/Grievous' Shoulder Charge/Rush Strike/Defensive Rush/Charge Slam/Claw Rush will change the camera angle randomly. https://youtu.be/yKJLZJLq4SU shorturl.at/uBJU1 shorturl.at/aBDP3 28) Pushing abilities don’t work if you are too close to the target (all heroes with that ability) http://shorturl.at/clmK4 29) The pushing abilities are not synchronized with the radius meter (you deal the damage but not trigger the ability) http://shorturl.at/ehwAK 30) Hit registration is such a great joke in this game shorturl.at/bmHK0 31) Finn's Undercover Team will not give a speed boost https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/cev2sd/all_known_bugsissuesglitches_as_of_7182019/ 32) The ATT and TX-130 middle abilities do not work on PC if you don’t use default keybindings 33) Having a partner in the squad from the opposite team https://youtu.be/37YHbMh_QTM 34) Can't spawn with the vehicle for no reason at all https://youtu.be/a5yIf8VuhqU 35) Triple XP event gives only HalfXP for Hero Showdown https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/bxvhmc/triplexp_halfxp_for_hero_showdown/ 36) Group chat can be seen by the rest of the teams https://i.imgur.com/9tDDfzQ.jpg https://i.imgur.com/JskKLhx.png https://i.imgur.com/OilQWpN.png
37) Two BB9E spawned at the same time https://youtu.be/cgMTsBkpXi0 37) 6 AT-ST in GA https://youtu.be/blq1xm4oTqs 38) Aerial That Can Deliver The Package In 5 Seconds https://youtu.be/jLzV22thlLk 39) You don’t know which AT-AT will be shoot on during the lock on https://youtu.be/0nM8DHLw0vc 40) At-st Aim Is Drifting Away when shooting through the AT-ATs legs https://youtu.be/E0pwXPgc1eo 41) Iden shield is broken against lasers and explosives https://youtu.be/MAMPYUiTXFs 42) Fire does not pass through the broken window https://youtu.be/6-yFmdKosBs 43) ATAT & AT-M6 can stomp his own teammates https://youtu.be/O_uB2VVTgQw 44) Out of bound kills you anyway https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nzwiSeIvGw& https://youtu.be/SA6N67olNbk 45) Max number in play https://youtu.be/FH2IyXu3WsQ 46) The round ends prematurely on Endor https://youtu.be/GzeSPjktvEE https://youtu.be/tZUYUSaAva8 47) Powerful shaking camera when melee https://youtu.be/2aTMlVWBB38 48) Stuck between the doors https://youtu.be/Sh43hzTRggM 49) The landing ships are killing when touched or in nearby https://youtu.be/aHU4-0wNciY https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/ftpuf9/_/ 50) The players from new party scoreboard are hard to be noticed https://i.imgur.com/aRRpH5D.jpg 51) Kills as specialist are not displayed unless you start to release the zoom 52) Delayed damage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=114s 53) Delayed zoom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=122s 54) Iden droid is missing the target if the hero does a lightsaber swing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=128s 55) Dooku's expose weakness changes your focus fire ability (applies for Wookies and Chewbacca) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=139s 56) No health bar for Bossk when zooming (FFS add that) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=170s 57) Getting stuck between doors (and eventually dying) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=189s Massive damage dealt by Wookies (180 HP delt from the mid-range! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=215s 58) Ion Torpedo not following the selected vehicle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=308s 59) Ion torpedo does not reach the vehicle due to the aim trajectory/object standing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=322s 60) Auto turret destruction after advancing to the next phase https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKKzH2AKn-A 61) Joining the opposite party team https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=327s 62) Rocket sometimes deals 1HP (sometimes it deals incredible low damage) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=447s 63) The model is not dying after being killed by Luke's force push or Anakin's abilities https://youtu.be/MHCmlBkJ13Y https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=463s 64) Slam is not giving damage if one little object is standing next to you and the opponent https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=474s 65) Weapons can still do a lot of damage to heroes (no hacks) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=520s 66) Unable to jump on uneven/inclined areas (heroes + troopers) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=569s https://youtu.be/h8OZBZNYLGQ https://i.imgur.com/VRtDIzl.jpg 67) Unlimited Wookies / special troopers? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=583s 68) Wrong area for Pull Dominance https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=596s 69) Another stuck https://youtu.be/Orw8y1fa8pA https://youtu.be/qOx2bB8Pwc8 70) Walking over every little bump makes it so impossible https://youtu.be/ERzvZY1unVU 71) Spawns on Blast and HVV are a joke https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfStym6GU48 72) Disruptor ability has a 0.5s delay https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kn4AFuhg3Ds& 73) Dash strike direction is wrong https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DiE2bua2ly4&=&feature=youtu.be&=&t=33s https://youtu.be/yKJLZJLq4SU 74) Unable to Jumpack if the player is moving on an uneven train https://youtu.be/gHSo9uuxtyc 75) Zooming with a wall behind (thanks to JongoFett12) https://youtu.be/Fo00GvFofVE https://youtu.be/bTtKE5aRAVA 76) No overtime granted (objective failure) https://youtu.be/YVry0DH8Wdk https://youtu.be/ju9lFUYbScQ 77) Avoid stun by jumping before getting stunned https://youtu.be/r-Y3kJwZsUI 78) Yavin AT-ST has the wrong price (has the price of the reinforcements and the price is only changed during the reinforcement events) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/f7at7b/yes_ive_finally_figured_it_out_after_all_this/ 79) Chewbacca's slam is interrupted/stopped if is performed on an uneven surface https://youtu.be/Ka2jMh0Xbfg 80) Health bar missing for Bossk and Phasma while zooming https://cutt.ly/zyZBjVe 81) The push animation is super amplificated if you use more than two moving abilities or animations https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/bha9ly/grievous_takes_a_dirt_nap/ 82) AAT bidings are broken https://answers.ea.com/t5/Bug-Reports/AAT-Siege-Mode-doesn-t-work-with-original-keybinding/td-p/6451712/page/2 83) Chat delay when typing causing to not display the first letter you type https://i.gyazo.com/228faf3fb5138d6a471f02283f87094e.jpg 84) Bossk deals very low damage on turrets https://youtu.be/hCXVO5KoYp4 85) You can still destroy the walker after the end phase https://youtu.be/B5tCFLflxGc 86) People froze by Kylo dodge the opposite way when unfrozen https://media.giphy.com/media/Pj5l2SG7SIBokT0qVL/giphy.gif http://tiny.cc/2sq5pz http://tiny.cc/urq5pz 87) Lightsaber hit is canceling the hero that was force pushed and it let the enemy land on the ground https://youtu.be/5NjewSubwb0 https://youtu.be/tcYj_8Vy2Fc 88) LAAT damage is not registered well against vehicles when holding the laser button https://youtu.be/3rIhjR51RQo 89) There is not an extended time when you shoot the MTT with two consecutive ion torpedoes https://youtu.be/tdccmwSTB4s 90) You can lose and win at the same time https://youtu.be/cPeC6JI2_Qw https://youtu.be/gOCoWfL6IhE 91) If you hit the Palpatine's light chain on multiple players you won't be able to use the basic attack for 4 seconds (until the ability starts to cooldown) https://youtu.be/XxVZ-r2jO7g 92) Laser Turrent is broken shoot multiple times https://youtu.be/3Lbc-p9ogS8 93) Entering the other team spawn point and camping 94) THE PROMISED STATS!!! 95) Massive stuttering while getting hit by infiltrator or sentry mode https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sqjhw3zrsY 96) No melee damage inflicted if the player jumps https://youtu.be/uk9XEFl-1dc 97) Missing DX12 option (only for some) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-TX1N4Koyzg 98) Equipped but not https://youtu.be/1CiU8mL-tco https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJyMR4ZJAzM 99) During Focused Rage activation Vader cannot be ragdolled at all 100) Dooku's light chain ability does not deplete stamina on Yoda https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vto-HJtGpj4& 101) Geonosis has the ATTEs way too back (behind the out of bound area) and they can't be reached which leads for the droids to lose in phase 1,2 (no video) 102) The Repulsor Cannon doesn't work properly. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xDH99aSVoc https://battlefront-forums.ea.com/discussion/142128/repulsor-cannon-doesnt-work-specialist-gun (fixed actually) 103) Bossk’s unscoped headshot has no damage multiplier https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fr3pl0/weekly_bug_report_and_tech_support_thread_march/flugxd3/ 104) Maul can trigger the choke push in the air (before reaching the ground) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZtfOoDri3s& 105) Ion Torpedo is broken against turrets since launch for any stationary turrets https://youtu.be/Nyym-zi1-2Y 106) Tossing the hero in the opposite direction with the Lightning Stun https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IS5T_NjnDc& 107) Stuck in loading screen on GA then disconnected https://youtu.be/tirO5hHc3T0 https://youtu.be/bErHH4blacA 108) Loading is stuck in hvv after joining someone https://youtu.be/KCWj8XMsi48 109) Abusive spawn kill on Takodana https://youtu.be/ZkN5BtVl7OI 110) Joining the party but playing for the opposite team https://youtu.be/hoaQ77hZajg 111) Boba's air-dash will drain all jet-pack fuel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_eEm2rLxRqc& https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxkCtWmVJHA& https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OThmCP_g3TQ& 112) Grievous thrust surge bug https://youtu.be/S8Be5a_dEaI?t=62 113) Starting as a random hero instead of keeping the selected one (HVV) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUEBnnUdveA& http://shorturl.at/cpswO 114) Camera is a mess on CS vehicles https://old.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/efidll/vehicles_in_pvp_modes_need_some_work/ 115) When playing Co-op, staying in the lobby for the next game often throws one person on their own team, instead of all 4 players versus the AI https://battlefront-forums.ea.com/discussion/147511/co-op-enemy-player-bug shorturl.at/ikvx3 116) Stuck on Endor https://youtu.be/DF-as2DHko4 117) Cant stopping the invitation message https://youtu.be/NkweE1TzOYM 118) Bad aim for Bossk + snipers (shooting the wall) https://youtu.be/9yM8ET4Gc54 119) AT RT standing up after being destroyed like a decoy for the enemies https://youtu.be/cz_ZpSITXe0 120) You are not interrupted by the stun during the objective deactivation https://youtu.be/feboppjw7eI 121) Annoying long-lasting spawn timer https://youtu.be/8FRJz1-kNLI https://youtu.be/f54lrPhLjJ8 https://youtu.be/t3cHdZyCUUg 122) AT RT driver is not seen on Bossk predatory vision https://youtu.be/xqy8hOycoSE 123) Finn buff ability is a disaster game winning for the choked points (since he was buffed last year) https://youtu.be/yZ4OJA7hjcA 124) Missile turrets are exploding in mid air https://youtu.be/fWGjq_CgnYc 125) Transport ships from supremacy are too OP https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fxty7m/dice_pls_nerf_the_transport_ships_theyre_clearly/ 126) Leya's E11 is freaking OP https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fwvkdo/abusing_the_e11_before_it_gets_nerfed/ 127) Multiplying the same heroes on HVV https://youtu.be/v_dga2GDtBc?t=361 https://youtu.be/-4tlmWc0V38?t=524 128) Stuck between the ATTE leg/armpit (heroes and not only) (no video but happens all the time) 129) Flash grenade is working through walls https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/f8enqs/fixed/ 131) Getting stuck in melee animation for too much instead of being able to stop the animation (and roll or shoot) 132) Han Shoulder Charge is having a very small hitbox https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fyibgp/so_grievous_claw_rush_gets_the_hitbox_of_a/ 133) Defensive Rush is lacking shorturl.at/gOT13 134) Han Shoulder Charge, Chewbacca and Rey charges does not instantly reset if they are interrupted by 135) Other abilities (obi-wan defensive rush does reset) 136) Jumping and starting to run again cant accelerate for the first 2 seconds 137) Concussion is passing through walls https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g32ueplayers_whats_the_range_of_bobas_concussion/ 138) If you use Han's shoulder and push someone, out of the map you don’t get any score or kills 139) On COOP Jabba palace you remain stuck on the top of the rocks outside of palace (no video) 140) Ewoks appear to be floating when walking (not even touching the ground) 141) The capturing objective does not appear when capturing with BB-9E (GA not sure for CS) 142) Luke can no longer use the extra jump if he uses the force push (people says it was a fix) 143) The laser turret is not updated to the last turrent aim position (delayed shooting) https://youtu.be/p8vp8PIlalM 144) Iden cant destroy trip mines with her secondary fire https://youtu.be/P2TSIt9Q3ac 145) Obi-Wan has a very shiny effect when blocking lightsabers https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fr83x3/when_you_get_caught_alone_as_obiwan/ 146) On Geonosis the ion powers do not affect the turrets that are placed in the swamps (no video but it always happens) 147) Another stuck on star killer in the command room 149) Bad connection present all the time 150) boba is still shooting the barrage ability when falling 151) Ray insight has a very large and inaccurate spectrum if you are staying on a top of something https://i.imgur.com/1r84VHh.jpg 152) Emote wheel is now slower than before on PC (no instant button as we requested) 153) Sometimes the grenades no explode if you toss it before dying (rare) https://youtu.be/Et3mvBSBsn0 154) Villans chokes trigger unfairly faster https://youtu.be/r81NNHoNga0 155) You cant craft the BBs droid and upgrade them like the rest of the heroes 156) Chat is shaking from time to time (small drops down and up) 157) You continue to get points if you die during the capturing 158) Ally Vehicles will be marked as hostile on the mini-map when they're firing. https://youtu.be/JWV_Lj3gl4c http://shorturl.at/CHIJM 160) You will randomly not be able to shoot after CC (However there are probably more causes to this) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/cei9uv/so_a_aaa_shooter_game_wouldnt_let_me_shoot_my_gun/?st=jy9spaw4&sh=93a605eb 161) Clunky movement of characters (should be much smoother like in SWBF1) 162) Speeder vehicle aiming is generally broken http://shorturl.at/czCF0 163) AT-AT Orbital strike is inconsistent and cant be used https://youtu.be/UMBuPd1TSNc https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/bdipbb/bug_fix_the_orbital_strike_from_the_atat_its/ 164) An exploit allows vehicles/heroes to have no limit, meaning you can have 5 AT-STs or 3 heroes in the first phase. https://i.redd.it/oy2wkfkg5iq41.png 165) On PC the vehicle aiming is broken, it will always try to recenter if while you’re not actively moving the mouse 166) AT-ST missile is locking down human players BUT not vehicles 167) Stuck in avoidance animation caused by Palpatine or boba https://youtu.be/AMFxgPlsiPE https://youtu.be/5wtthrtyB4c 168) You don't get the battle points for the objective in the spawn screen for multiple objectives https://youtu.be/ni75evaRYjM 169) Lightsaber turns on when activating the objective which can be easily spotted by enemies https://youtu.be/DuNFyVFpaW8 170) Ewok Light on low settings https://youtu.be/wliqxVLTVxw 171) Friendly Fire Flash Effect https://youtu.be/hPGr6MdOHp0 172) Shield are activated with huge delay https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/f2xenw/its_time_to_fix_the_shield_delays/ 173) Boba Fett is smoking out a lot https://youtu.be/ty2Cjm6OxqI https://youtu.be/B0dxOqri6bE 174) The Ai Ships Dont Count As Kill https://youtu.be/AHJyKafjsig 175) Small gap in throne room allows the grenades to fall under the map https://youtu.be/JnCYamcFcuQ https://youtu.be/0mGaOCkuYiY 176) Too much blue on Predatory Instinct https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/frm957/bossks_predatory_instinct_before_and_afte 177) Random jumps when moving or jumping https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=153s 178) Grenade disappears/do not affect after you toss it right before you die https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=204s 179) Hit-box is super delayed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=223s 180) Unable to select any hero (HVV very rare) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=235s 181) Instant removed the shield 182) Intermittent light issue (GPU related on Ewok) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=285s 183) Invisible walls (Geonosis, Jakku) 184) Annoying timer (waiting 8 seconds to see that one player is taking the hero first) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=361s 185) Blaster Cannon deals incredible low damage and splash damage 186) Random damage (from the player that died in that area) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=408s 187) Spawned after the enemy line advanced and killed from behind (Naboo) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=534s 188) Unable to access player's profile and report cheaters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=560s 189) 300m away from objective spawn https://youtu.be/nYrl2HE_0QI 190) Extra melee attack is performed when you actually are dodging behind https://youtu.be/oTBedgSoq60?t=78 191) AT-ST Insta-Death from speeder https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrzLjt-oMvY& 192) You can't jump/crouch/uncrouch if you are dealing with a shock grenade (heroes too) https://youtu.be/KY4188feNsU 193) Autoplayers shoot when meleeing you http://shorturl.at/gmB25 194) Finn has very low scoring points for team play https://youtu.be/PLZ03RQdk9g 195) Having 4-5 Droideka spawned player is just too much shorturl.at/oEHM8 196) Switching the objective icon position when spawning makes you run on the opposite direction https://youtu.be/Lgc9UZ86wmw 197) Dooku exposed - 3 lightsaber hits with your powerful buff ability and you are simply gone 198) https://youtu.be/EwybR6NPRxc 198) The weapon disruptor triggers with delay after you are actually killed https://youtu.be/FHGPz9DEB3M 199) Endor terrain still needs to be polished https://youtu.be/CCxH4xGHahg 200) Smoking jet trooper https://youtu.be/CQwWGNILZ4Q 201) The invisible drivers https://youtu.be/8oQAGDjI6KM 202) AT_ST that one-shot heroes https://youtu.be/J_etqd8kDww 203) The objective is overlapping https://youtu.be/pZDmvjuox0Q 204) On blast you can spawn next to the enemy https://youtu.be/wpgmAQGpYoo 205) Enemy troll spawning next to you on Naboo https://youtu.be/zCnYEdEr4Mk 206) Enemies troll spawn next to you on Tatooine https://youtu.be/FovfOBT7z6s 207) Spawned dead already https://youtu.be/sInff8NY-6I 208) Stuck in mid-air https://youtu.be/8oZIVRSoj8o 209) Rocket that doesn’t give damage https://youtu.be/N-Hor7TY7SU 210) You can reach the objective before the phase starts https://youtu.be/lblFwCZoGp8 211) Obi-Wan is immune to sabers from any direction during Defensive Rush and even dealing damage to those behind him https://youtu.be/loSd-RTycxI?t=131 212) Vader has the chock hand hanging in the air after choking someone https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/ftxf4v/its_one_thing_to_do_the_force_choke_ledge_drop/ 213) The E-WEB deals very low damage and splash damage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzFY0BRu9EA&t=371s http://shorturl.at/eDMNY 214) The Minimap goes blank in Co-op and Instant Action, resulting in no Friendly or enemy dots showing up. https://youtu.be/zSTCy6qKcyA?t=84 215) Anakin may be yanked from Heroic Might by Claw Rush. https://battlefront-forums.ea.com/discussion/155130/anakin-needs-some-fixes 216) AI in the coop and instant action use hacks http://shorturl.at/aDNU0 217) Flash Pistol does not blind with alternate fire as it should. https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/exmg0o/weekly_bug_report_and_tech_support_thread/fg9kg3q/ 218) Server full and placed on queue when searching for a new server https://youtu.be/J89k7OkDAtk 219) Sometimes you don't join the queued player unless you press the join button https://youtu.be/5OcN-ljOJMg https://youtu.be/COOLvP_gNY8 220) Disconnected for no reason at all https://youtu.be/V6sEe1I4hqk 221) Getting my ability blocked by my own teammate https://youtu.be/bCFHDFcoVPQ 222) You don’t get ANY point rewards for the damage you inflicted on a buffed player https://youtu.be/yZ4OJA7hjcA 223) Half-life and two melee damage are just not enough (inSWBF1 two melees on full health were more than enough to take down a trooper) https://youtu.be/5Um1HzQec5Y 224) Wrong class selected https://youtu.be/kH0shxbVWIY 225) Random invisible damage https://youtu.be/V0oMSEvce_k https://youtu.be/XiL97Hd8yag 226) Massive spawn kill on supremacy Kamino if all capture points are taken by separatists https://youtu.be/mMZGyyCKZxo 227) Stuck into the crashed at-st https://youtu.be/GWkERaXtoAM 228) No collision with the metal railing thing https://youtu.be/fnnvecORLFs 229) The blocking ability is removed if you are stepping on a slope or uneven terrain https://youtu.be/VXskxEBEVWM 230) Enemy dot spot randomly showing up on radar https://youtu.be/vpf2rXZS1hE 231) Quick clicks and you are spawned in a different location https://youtu.be/v_dga2GDtBc?t=233 232) Palpatine shooting at the lower body parts would inflict almost no damage https://youtu.be/z86-n_OSAbs 233) Bossk mines instant recharge when activated on push https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2IYgiJWCdk 234) The laser from the laser turret is not synchronized with the aim direction of the muzzle https://youtu.be/p8vp8PIlalM
235) Bug that prevents you from aiming with ion torpedo if you used TL 50 alt-fire right before switching to torpedo https://giant.gfycat.com/MasculineHoarseAcouchi.webm (Thanks to MisterSparkleRD)
236) Anakins retribution also leaves him exposed the last 2 seconds of the animation allowing him to be shredded to pieces without being able to do anything. - https://youtu.be/kXQTqNcsI1w?t=760 (thanks to Olymp-Ares123)
237) Stuck on Tatooine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K0t1f2n8oQI& - thx to Olymp-Ares123
238) You can complete the challenges for the new weapons while you're in a vehicle shorturl.at/bALQ4
240) Lobbies on Xbox where the match never starts and only one team gets filled (as suggested by many in the comments)
241) Overheating Lando's gun - the success state doesn't work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nL7GCftrHlo& (fixed?)
242) Leia sniping from the back of the map (hoth/geonosis) https://youtu.be/afsJSImCpnQ?t=58 (thanks to Minifigamer)
243) Maul's block not working for a few seconds after doing a rush shorturl.at/npFPW (thanks to YaBoyPads)
244)Vader being able to block while throwing his saber https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g4sqdh/240_issues_i_have_with_the_game/fo036zb/ (thanks to YaBoyPads)
245) Leia Thermal Detonator Bug - Instant Cooldown - https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/f9we3y/leia_thermal_detonator_bug_immediate_cooldown/
246) Anakins retribution doesn't activate and doesn't let players use abilities, block or attack after trying to use retribution (check the right corner when the ability is triggered) https://youtu.be/enMsgDFevzY?t=297 (thanks to telletubiesftw)
247) Obi-Wan's Restrictive Mind Trick doesn't disable abilities if it's used on a ragdolled or knocked down enemy http://shorturl.at/ayMNU
248) Endor stuck 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFU0ocTpZCU (thanks Olymp-Ares123)
249) Splash damage is not inflicting damage if one little object is standing next to you and the opponent https://youtu.be/MzFY0BRu9EA?t=471
250) Han / Chewie / Rey charge abilities are canceled and never reset back by the villain heroes https://youtu.be/MzFY0BRu9EA?t=481
251) Falling under the map on Bespin doesn't kill you https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g5fdss/obi_wall_kenobi/
252) Stuck on Yavin IV with BB9 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YRDb5GvxXc
253) BB8 can push / use the force through walls https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g5xau0/bb8_uses_the_force/
254) Lightsaber can sometimes disappear during the battle (very rare) http://shorturl.at/pszGQ
255) Endor stucks in the last phase https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEiZl7jCbI8&
256) Another random jump bump https://youtu.be/K8lIg_py2Tw
257) being moved from GA to CO OP then to an empty GA server https://youtu.be/CN3v459TD7o
258)Entering the objective before being defended phase transition https://youtu.be/su_HawIWTcI
259) Allowing you to play with full team party (breaks the balance) ttps://youtu.be/mLaZ_l2jKwA
260) Bad geometry, was pushed by the rock https://youtu.be/kod5q_-w5MI
261) Idle spawn screen is not counted (start the round in alt + tab) https://youtu.be/tNHraNnFohU
262) 1200 BP for simply dying https://youtu.be/7jbUIQfE61I
263) Just another Tatooine stuck shorturl.at/gCEW5
264) No limit for the party numbers (you can play up to 20!) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gctjim/i_think_we_need_private_matches/
265) Grievous CLaw Rush is moving 360 making him too powerful and unbalanced https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gcl6gy/gg_is_a_completely_balanced_hero/
266) Anakin's Heroic Might continues to be broken (unable to melee after using the retribution0 https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gf9fma/breaking_news_anakin_is_still_broken/
267) Anakin's retribution can't affect all of the surrounding's players https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gfqxp4/anakin_fix_when/
268) Large smoke effect on capital ships https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gf7dp8/ea_our_vision_is_complete_their_vision/
269) Terrible spawn outside of the on CS - https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/ges4fz/spawning_in_on_the_ground_during_ship_phase/
270) Heroes are slowed down by random star cards shorturl.at/oCMX9
271) The Transport Ship that will never arrive - https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/ghjw8z/the_transport_ship_that_will_never_arrive/
272) Being moved from GA to CO-OP https://youtu.be/mxFIhRG-FBA
273) Rolling on the floor without getting up http://shorturl.at/dfAO7
274) Incredible long lunge http://shorturl.at/nEFNU
275) Hero AI gets stuck http://shorturl.at/uHIRX
276) Hard to jump over the metallic rail https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gq2dal/can_we_get_a_patch_to_lower_the_guard_rails_xd/
277) Joining the same team on HVV https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gpwu7o/the_enemy_team_didnt_stand_a_chance/
278) Falling under the map without dying https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gq4je8/well_i_guess_it_wouldnt_be_the_first_time_hes/
279) Anakin's abilities are unable to be used https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gr0pa9/anakin_skywalker_the_broken_one/
280) DX12 is a disaster causing the game to crash or use all the ram https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gpx7sx/does_anyones_game_use_this_much_ram/
281) Crait stuck https://youtu.be/Sznj-P-B9Ns?t=33
282) Bad Spawn Geonosis https://youtu.be/Sznj-P-B9Ns?t=106
283) Invisible wall Kashyk https://youtu.be/vjowEhsHPAw
284) Exploiting with the AT-ST by walking over buildings https://youtu.be/Sznj-P-B9Ns?t=275
285) Shooting during reload https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gu2b2k/thats_definitely_how_blasters_work/
286) Unable to spawn https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/guq6sk/do_the_devs_always_gotta_add_more_bugs_after_they/
287) Spawn under the map (rare) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gut2oy/ea_decided_im_not_the_chosen_one/
288) Complete vision (falling under the map) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gw3aif/our_vision_is_complete/
289) Obi Wan can't hold the block right after using the rush ability https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gzpn5i/never_understood_why_obiwan_is_the_only_hero_who/
290) Spawned out of the vehicle in mid air https://youtu.be/j-W2zfYXChg?t=119
291) Gap in the map and falling under - https://tinyurl.com/ydfej5n7
292) Y wing round start on GA tatooine Glitch - https://www.shorturl.at/ajGR3
293) AT-ST stuck on takodana - https://youtu.be/ijGC--aa8N0
294) No damage score and damage indicator when shooting with the alt fire against turrets - https://youtu.be/YkbiZzUZSqY
295) phasma turrent can be unmounted from far away - https://youtu.be/U8fzb4TontQ
296) Steamrolling team got stomped by Finn's abilities https://youtu.be/JzpcZY00-wg
297) Lasser turrets appear to get damaged if you previously shoot before mounting https://youtu.be/FrgAWgYzGng
298) Iden can't destroy trip mines https://youtu.be/c4sidoz3Hog
299) Kylo Ren jumps sky-high when using the frenzy on an inclined terrain https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/hn9mq9/dice_please/
300) Vanguard headshot = disconnect https://youtu.be/xEYJWkSXwpk
301) Exploit bug where Vader is invincible https://tinyurl.com/y5ds79sm
OTHER GENERAL ISSUES:
302) Very unbalanced games (all modes) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/ffdozd/does_anybody_have_any_idea_how_matchmaking_works/ 303) Laggy servers (occasionally) https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/fwdm5j/please_fix_your_servers_dice/
304) Hitbox is a painful joke (almost every time)
305) Villans are again much superior on HVV
306) Way too many freeze abilities which contribute to an unfair gameplay https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/gho81u/lmao_wasnt_even_given_a_chance/
307) MISSING STATS! (promised by them)
308) Blocking doesn't work properly. You can still swing through a block before it starts to block https://www.reddit.com/StarWarsBattlefront/comments/g53xlk/just_block_please_dice_fix_this_mess_the_game_is/
309) Aiming across different zoom levels messes up with sensitivity which fucks up muscle memory. This shouldn't be an issue in an FPS game. Just add unifrom soldier aiming. ffs DICE. (by zombie2792)
310) TTK is too long because too much health and garbage damage model making flanking irrelevant.
311) Grenade spam. A side effect of a long TTK. Why shoot a guy and expose yourself for 5 seconds when you can just throw a grenade and instantly kill him
312) No server browser
313) CHEATERS!
314) No private matches as promised
submitted by HamerWrangler to StarWarsBattlefront

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