Feeling Good, Feeling Sad
Breathe new life into your English lesson plans for KS1 and KS2 with our unrivalled range of resources, materials and ideas, including - Reading and writing worksheets - Phonics flashcards - Guided reading activities - Handwriting worksheets And that's just the tip of the iceberg! Key Stage 1: Years 3 and 4 Key Stage 2: Years 5, 6 and 7 1.3_ STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMARY CURRICULUM The curriculum for the three stages is set out in six Areas of Learning. Write a review of this book - click here!
Reading and Writing Worksheets for Key Stage 1
The growth in the number of children learning English in primary schools around the world is arguably the biggest revolution (Johnstone 2020) in English language teaching globally over the past two decades. English grammar, punctuation and spelling - GOV UK. Progress in Reading Assessment (PiRA) https://globalbeatschool.ru/crack/?key=919. Key stage 1 english pdf. Play at Key Stage 1 should build on the active, hands–on learning that has taken place in the Foundation Stage. It also helps them develop social skills. Find teaching resources, activities and games for your early years or key stage 1 class.
2020 national curriculum tests Key stage 1 - SATs Papers
KS1 Online Maths Tests. Firstly you will need to know another login to my maths do this by ether asking your friend for his login details. EMERSON UNIDRIVE SP USER MANUAL Pdf Download https://globalbeatschool.ru/crack/?key=915. The number needs to be changed into a letter from the alphabet. How to write a book review - Teachit English. Key stage 1, Key stage 2. Primary resource Join now or Log in. More info Use to teach. Adobe Acrobat Overview; Features; Learn & Support; Buy now Convert from Acrobat DC Trial to Acrobat 2020.
Mount And Blade Warband Serial Key Manual Activation Code
Election Looms (Bloomberg) - The risks across emerging markets would be enough to occupy the minds of traders even in a normal week - from debt. Pupils do not have to sit both papers on the same day. Appendix D: key stage 1 English grammar, punctuation and spelling Ref: ISBN 978-1-78957-493-7, STA/20/8510/e PDF, 628KB, 37 pages Appendix E: key stage 2 mathematics. The key stage 1 English reading test meets the specification set out in the key stage 1. English reading test framework. Talk 4 Writing Adapting a Unit Planner for KS1/2 English 5-7, 7-11, KS1, KS2 EYFS Early Years EYFS KS1 Key Stage 1 KS1 Adobe Reader. Maths and English Practice Papers ensure children gain the confidence needed to work under timed conditions. Maths CE paper 4 Download.
|1||Key stage 1 tests: 2020 English grammar, punctuation and||25%|
|2||Understanding cybercrime: Phenomena, challenge and legal||84%|
|3||English books for download pdf||50%|
|4||KODAK I1800 SERIES KEY OPERATOR'S MANUAL Pdf Download||27%|
|5||(PDF) Reviewing educational transitions: moving from the||35%|
|6||The PiXL Club - PiXL Primary||21%|
|7||KSOL 11 Plus Tuition - Helping your child pass the 11 plus||34%|
|8||How to Write a Newspaper Report – 11 Great Resources for||13%|
Activation key kS1 SATs Papers - SATs Papers KS1 [1999-2020] - Free Downloads
Schools' Answer Key and Recording Scripts Practice Test (Complete PET) PDF, 109kb. Exam Officers Entries & information manual Our Entries and Codes Finder allows you to create a customised pdf containing only the qualifications and subjects you require. Clue 1 – Get into shape. The improvement of the book at the final stage. OXFORD English Grammar OXFORD. Foundation Stage and Year 1. Page 2. KS2 SATs Level Threshold Tables.
Emsa Register Dll Tool Activation Key.epub
Manage and validate responsibility for information development and delivery at each stage of the asset life cycle in level 2 BIM projects. Start with our simplest "reverse the word" codes and work up through the different types of codes below, which become increasingly difficult to decipher! Although it is does not directly link with the new curriculum, it does contain some useful resources and ideas for helping students increase thier. The optional key stage 1 English grammar, punctuation and spelling tests were administered in schools in May Test administration instructions and mark schemes are also provided. Find your niche, build an audience, and start writing today. The problem is revealed to be caused by a profane rainbow, whose defeat nets the player with the game's eighth ending, a teaser for Five Nights at Freddy's: Sister Location. English grammar, punctuation and spelling test materials administered to eligible pupils at the end of key stage 1 in May Author: Standards And Testing Agency.
Teachwire Teaching Resource
This stage establishes and verifies asset requirements. As known, in the manner of you entrance a book, one to remember is not abandoned the PDF, but afterward the genre of the book. Hit the button - Topmarks Search find here. Completed in mock exam under normal timed conditions. NFER is the leading independent provider of research insights in education with a particular focus on Accountability, Assessment, Classroom Practice, Education to Employment, School Workforce, Systems and Structures, School Funding and Social Mobility. Boost engagement, get qualified leads, generate revenue & discover insights. KS1 English: Jack and the Beanstalk - BBC Teach anchor.
2020 national curriculum test handbook
YEAR 1: The United Kingdom - Core Knowledge UK. Mathswatch Answers Worksheets - Teacher Worksheets. We use track systems, cablenets or even a single spot hoist to open up creative space, bringing anything from 1 to 400+ axis of motion into play for all kinds of product launches, ceremonies and shows. KS1 English learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers organised by topic. Thanks to a thematic approach, this course is an ideal resource for PYP teachers. Page 2 of 32 [BLANK PAGE] Please do not write on this page. K. M URALIDHAR Department of Zoology.
Uncooperative World Leaders Targeted for Replacement as early as November by Benjamin Fulford, October 19, 2020
MI6 sources say:
“There is a growing consensus the British Prime Minister has failed and must go. We had a comment last night from someone we listen to very carefully.”
One reason for this planned move is the dissemination of information obtained by British and French intelligence about the ongoing coronavirus scam. The fact these (and other) leaders are all pushing the scam is a sign they are not genuine leaders but rather employees of the Rothschild and Rockefeller families.
The French intelligence report says:
“The entire covidocracy is a masquerade and a simulation prepared long in advance by the World Bank, the IMF, the Rothschilds and their lemmings in cooperation with the Rockefeller family.”
(The French report will be posted on the “Letters to the Editor” page, translation to English).
As evidence, the French provided official patent registrations made in 2015 but only made public in September 2020. “These patents alone are proof they knew in 2015 what was going to happen in 2020,” the sources say.
For example, a patent registered by “Rothschild, Richard A., in London, Great Britain” details how to calculate detailed biometric information from individuals via their mobile devices. The mobile devices can measure the cardiac rhythm of the individual and can combine that with other information (e.g. weight, age, etc.) to calculate many things.
The devices could thus calculate such things as how many calories they burn in a day, blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and sleeping habits, and blood alcohol levels among other things. This would allow police, for example, to remotely detect if a person was drunk driving. The data would also make it possible to identify each individual via their unique breathing and heart patterns.
To obtain this data people need to be holding their phone, be connected with a Bluetooth earbud, or wearing a health monitoring watch sending to the cloud. Facial recognition is improved for 5G surveillance when people are kept at least 5 feet apart, which is why there is a campaign to promote “social distancing” and mask wearing as it will be easy to identify individuals who are not going along with the “new normal” population reduction vaccination program.
Thus the U.S. presidential election due November 3rd is largely a battle “to protect the FIAT currency and country debt money laundering and stealth state capture operations of the Khazarian Mafia,” MI6 sources say.
Under these circumstances, any politician calling for “compulsory mask wearing and social distancing,” “wait for the vaccine to end the pandemic,” and “more lockdowns are necessary,” etc. has self-identified as a Khazarian Mafia Slave (KMS).
The situation in the U.S. has degenerated to the point that only 15% of Americans think U.S. democracy is functioning properly, according to an AP poll. The rioting and looting in major cities might have something to do with those poll numbers and questions about the Constitutional Republic were not included of course. https://apnews.com/article/election-2020-virus-outbreak-race-and-ethnicity-joe-biden-donald-trump-59144c3e764294d691d93c16d9bf5a7d
Even U.S. government organizations like the FBI and the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency report systematic threats to the integrity of the upcoming U.S. election. https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-283a https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/PSA_CyberThreats_Final-508.pdf
However, keep in mind the upcoming presidential election is about control of the entire planet as Trump is the last man standing in the way of the satan worshipping cabal harvesting adrenochrome on a global scale from kidnapped children.
Russian FSB sources claim their country has now fallen under the control of the Rothschild family via their fake Vladimir Putin. What this means is that the Russian banking system is not under the control of the Russian government but rather the same people who control the Federal Reserve Board, the sources say. They are the ones creating the fake confrontations between Russia and the West, they add.
Also, in confirmation of what French intelligence had to report, the FSB says Russia’s banking giant Sberbank has taken over…
…Africa’s banking system; subcontracting for the Khazarian mafia, Sberbank is offering all African citizens free bank cards and free mobile phones.
“The aim of this is not to make money but to collect biometric and other data on all Africans,” the source said. The fact that Africa has not been going along with the Covid-19 scam has added urgency to the Khazarian mafia campaign to get the African people sucked into the internet, social media, digital currency, bio-metric monitoring slavery system they are establishing in the rest of the world, the sources say.
In Russia, meanwhile, the sources say this Khazarians have managed to strengthen their control by offering mayors and other local politicians local monopolies on the manufacture and sale of face masks, etc. That is why Russian patriots in the FSB are planning to replace the corrupt leaders, possibly in November, the sources say.
The P3 Freemasons also note the similarities between what is going on now and the Bolshevik takeover of Russia in 1917. They say the BS Coronavirus was “developed to take over the world.” They said it is a “mechanism being employed to facilitate Khazarian mafia ownership of everything.”
This battle is not between countries. For example, there is still a faction in China pushing for 5G in countries like Brazil, following the mass deaths caused by 5G in Wuhan. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/china-says-brazil-e2-80-99s-business-reputation-hinges-on-5g-decision/ar-BB19LlIi
In another sign China is also a battlefield between two factions, last week Xi Jinping was attacked with an electromagnetic weapon while speaking in Shenzen. Chinese sources say there are “3 or 4 Xi Jinpings,” so we may see more body doubles. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8844047/Chinas-President-Xi-violently-coughs-speech-prompting-speculation-health.html
In a worst-case scenario, U.S. President Donald Trump will be killed and replaced with his look-alike actor (the one with the loose jowls and white around the eyes). This fake Trump will then proceed with RFID chip vaccinations, lockdowns, and the issuing of a digital currency connected with Certificate Of Vaccination ID (COVID) cards. He will also provoke World War III between the U.S. and China.
In this context, we note the release of the Hunter Biden computer files, complete with hints about proof of torture of children. This happened just before the election, just like the Anthony Weiner laptop leak of proof of child torture appeared just before the election in 2016. https://www.breitbart.com/radio/2016/11/04/erik-prince-nypd-ready-make-arrests-weiner-case/
The fact the U.S. border with Canada remains shut is also disturbing on many different levels. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who insists on keeping the border shut, is pushing the fake pandemic and calling for mass vaccinations far more than most world leaders.
We contacted his intelligence chief David McGuinty and top doctors with proof the pandemic was fake but received no replies. This is a clear sign the Canadian government has been hijacked by the Khazarian mafia.
At the same time, disinformation is being put out about Chinese troops being stationed in Canada. We have checked with many sources in Canada and are sure if any Chinese troops were really there, it would be impossible to hide. Instead, it looks like a pretext is being created for a U.S. military move against Canada. There will no doubt be Canadians who favor that scenario to oust Trudeau and his cronies and free the country from globalist control.
The situation is so dire that MI6 says:
“This public health emergency is causing severe harm and damage at this stage. Time to call in the big guns I think and put it down as an act of war, high treason, and aggravated crime against humanity.”
In this context, we note the recent public criticism of Trump by former White House chief of staff, retired Marine General John Francis Kelly. What Kelly needs to do is publicly say designated loser Joe Biden is just as bad if not worse.
If a military move is made, it needs to start by removing the entire political class from Washington DC and removing corrupt and complicit leaders around the world.
The gnostic Illuminati has also said that, in a worst-case scenario, they are prepared to destroy Washington DC with a nuclear weapon they have placed at an underground base there.
The NSA says the threat is real if they can be trusted to tell us the truth or possibly intend to create a panic and cause an election delay, time will tell.
We would also like to let readers know that this writer and his sources are under renewed attack. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo tried to hire gangsters to murder me during his visit to Japan last week, according to Japanese underworld sources. He was turned down.
There have also been intense, repeated attempts to infiltrate honey traps into my life. The young lady who helps me with Japanese internet videos has also been approached by multiple, obvious male honey traps. The move to honey traps came after the person who tried to kill her during the summer was “dealt with.”
Other sources have been threatened, arrested on false charges, killed, etc.
They threatened people include Pope Francis (that’s why many Swiss guards are being removed because of “Coronavirus,”) and British Royals who report “credible intelligence about assassination plots.”
We also note the operational silence from both Pentagon and Asian secret society sources. This is a sign the hunt for Rothschild, Rockefeller, and other Khazarian crime family honchos is intensifying. The best defense is a good offense.
Remember these people are actively trying to either murder or enslave you and your loved ones. This is no time to sit on the fence. This is a battle between those who want humanity to be free and those who want us to be enslaved.
Tartaria: The Supposed Mega-Empire of Inner Eurasia
IntroductionFor those not in the know, the Tartaria conspiracy theory is one of the most bizarre pieces of pseudo history out there. Its core notion is that the region known as ‘Tartaria’ or ‘Grand Tartary’ in Early Modern European maps was not simply a vague geographical designate, but in fact a vast, centralised empire. Said empire emerged… at some point, and it disappeared… at some point, but for… some reason, its existence has been covered up to suit… some narrative or another. As you can tell, there’s a lot of diverse ideas here, and the fact that there hasn’t been the equivalent of a Christological schism every time a controversial thread goes up is really quite impressive. While this post will primarily address one particular piece of writing that is at the core of Tartaria conspiracy theorising, I’ll include a few tidbits to show you just how much madness its adherents have come up with. But first, some background.
State of Play, and why I’m doing thisThe Tartaria theory has a small but active following on subreddits such as Tartaria, tartarianarchitecture, and CulturalLayer, which as of writing have around 5,300, 2,400 and 23,000 subscribers, respectively, but it’s clear from the 8 questions on the topic asked at AskHistorians since January 2019 and this debunk request from June that it’s a theory that has somewhat broad appeal and can reach beyond its core niche. This is unsurprising given how little education most people in the West receive about basically anything east of Greece: simply put, the reality of Eurasian history is just not something most of us are taught. And if we don’t know the reality of Eurasian history to begin with, or if we do then it's all in bits and pieces where we might not even know a basic set of dates and names, then what seems to be a pretty developed narrative about a lost empire actually turns out rather plausible.
Unfortunately, many debunks of the Tartaria narrative come from people pushing competing conspiracy theories, like this guy claiming that there’s a global
Where does it come from?My attempts to find the exact origins of the Tartaria conspiracy have been not entirely fruitful, as the connections I’ve found have been relatively circumstantial at best. But as far as I can tell, it at least partially originates with that Russian pseudohistorian we all know and love, Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko is perhaps best known in the English-speaking world for his 7-volume ‘epic’ from 2002, History: Fiction or Science?, but in fact he’s been pushing a complete ‘New Chronology’ since the publication of Novaia khronologia in Russian in 1995. While the New Chronology is best known for its attempt to explain away most of the Middle Ages as a hoax created by the Papacy on the basis of bad astronomy, it also asserts a number of things about Russian history from the Kievan Rus’ to the Romanovs. Key to the Tartaria theory is its claim that there was a vast Slavo-Turkic ‘Russian Horde’ based out of ‘Tartaria’ which dominated Eurasia until the last ‘Horde’ ruler, Boris Godunov, was overthrown by the European Mikhail Romanov. This, of course, is a clear attempt at countering the notion of a ‘Tatar Yoke’ over Russia, as you can’t have a ‘Tatar Yoke’ if the Tatars were Russians all along. Much as I’d like to explain that in more detail here, I don’t have to: in 2004, Konstantin Sheiko at the University of Wollongong wrote an entire PhD thesis looking at the claims of Fomenko’s New Chronology and contextualising them within currents of Russian nationalism, which can be accessed online.
But I personally suspect that if there are Fomenko connections as far as Tartaria specifically is concerned, they are limited. For one, at one stage users on the Tartaria subreddit seemed unfamiliar with Fomenko, and there are those arguing that Fomenko had ‘rewritten’ Tartarian history to be pro-Russian. This is why I said that the evidence was circumstantial. The only other link to Fomenko is indirect: the CulturalLayer sidebar lists the ‘New Chronology Resource Collection’ and the audiobook of History: Fiction or Science? under ‘Essential Resources’, and Tartaria in its ‘Related Subs’.
As far as I can tell, the ultimate origin of its developed form on the Anglophone web traces back to this post on the StolenHistory forums, posted on 17 April 2018. This makes some chronological sense: only one top-level post on CulturalLayer that mentions Tartaria predates this. Moreover, KorbenDallas, the OP of the thread, was also the forum’s chief admin, and given that StolenHistory is still (as of writing) the top resource on CulturalLayer’s sidebar, that suggests significant influence. However, using the search function on camas.github.io, it was mentioned in comments at least 9 times before then, with the first mention, on 10 January 2018, mentioning that the ‘theory’ had been doing the rounds on the Russian web for at least 5 years. Nevertheless, as the detail in these early comments is sparse and generally refers only to speculation about maps, it is probably fair to say that the first in-depth English-language formulation of the Tartaria ‘theory’ was thus the April 2018 forum post. Funnily enough, it is not cited often on Tartaria, but that subreddit was created on 27 December, long after discussion had been taking place on places like CulturalLayer, and combined with the ‘mudflood’ ‘theory’ and the notion of giant humans, which are not significant features of the StolenHistory thread. This more convoluted and multifaceted version of the Tartaria theory doesn’t really have a single-document articulation, hence me not covering it here.
It is this StolenHistory thread which I will be looking at here today. Not just because it seems to be at the heart of it all, but also because it got shut down around 36 hours ago as of writing this post, based on the timestamps of panicked ‘what happened to StolenHistory’ posts on CulturalLayer and Tartaria. So what better occasion to go back to the Wayback Machine’s version, seeing as it’s now quite literally impossible to brigade the source? Now as I’ve said, this is not the most batshit insane it gets for the Tartaria crowd, in fact it’s incredibly tame. But by the end of it, I bet you’ll be thinking ‘if this is mild, how much more worse is the modern stuff!?’ And the best part is, I can debunk most of it without recourse to any other sources at all, because so much of it involves them posting sources out of context or expecting them to be read tendentiously.
But that’s enough background. Let us begin.
Part 1: The Existence
Exhibit 1: The Encylcopædia Britannica, 1771
”Tartary, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Muscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India; and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China.” - Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. III, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 887.Starting a post about the ‘hidden’ history of Central Asia with an encyclopædia entry from Scotland is really getting off to a good start, isn’t it? Anyone with a sense of basic geography can tell you that Tibet lies due west of China, not northwest. But more importantly, this shows you how single-minded the Tartaria advocates are and how tendentiously they read things. ‘Country’ need not actually refer to a state entity, it can just be a geographical space, especially in more archaic contexts such as this. Moreover, the ethnographic division of the ‘Tartars’ into Astrakhanis, Circassians, Dagestanis, Kalmuks, Uzbeks, and, for whatever reason, Tibetans, pretty clearly goes against the notion of a unified Tartary.
Now compare to the description given by Wikipedia, ”Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.”Obviously, Wikipedia is not a good source for… anything, really, but the fact that they’re giving a 349-year-old encyclopaedia primacy over the summary sentence of a wiki article is demonstrative of how much dishonesty is behind this. And it only gets worse from here.
Exhibit 2: Hermann Moll’s A System of Geography, 1701
THE Country of Tartary, call'd Great Tartary, to distinguish it from the Lesser, in Europe, has for its Boundaries, on the West, the Caspian Sea, and Moscovitick Tartary; on the North, the Scythian, or Tartarian Sea; on the East, the Sea of the Kalmachites, and the Straight of Jesso; and on the South, China, India, or the Dominions of the great Mogul and Persia : So that it is apparently the largest Region of the whole Continent of Asia, extending it self [sic] farthest, both towards the North and East: In the modern Maps, it is plac'd within the 70th and 170th Degree of Longitude, excluding Muscovitick Tartary; as also between the 40 and 72 Degree of Northern Latitude.Immediately underneath the scan of this text is the statement, clearly highlighted, that
Tartary was not a tract. It was a country.Hmm, very emphatic there. Except wait no, the same semantic problem recurs. ‘Country’ need not mean ‘state’. Moreover, in the very same paragraph, Moll (or rather his translator) refers to Tartary as a ‘Region’, which very much disambiguates the idea. Aside from that, it is telling that Moll refers to three distinct ‘Tartaries’: ’Great Tartary’ in Asia, ‘Lesser Tartary’ in Europe, and ‘Muscovite Tartary’ – that is, the eastern territories of the Russian Tsardom. If, as they are saying, ‘Great Tartary’ was a coherent entity, whatever happened to ‘Lesser Tartary’?
Exhibit 3: A 1957 report by the CIA on ‘National Cultural Development Under Communism’Is a conspiracy theorist… actually believing a CIA document? Yep. I’ll add some context later that further complicates the issue.
Or let us take the matter of history, which, along with religion, language and literature, constitute the core of a people’s cultural heritage. Here again the Communists have interfered in a shameless manner. For example, on 9 August 1944, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, sitting in Moscow, issued a directive ordering the party’s Tartar Provincial Committee “to proceed to a scientific revolution of the history of Tartaria, to liquidate serious shortcomings and mistakes of a nationalistic character committed by individual writers and historians in dealing with Tartar history.” In other words, Tartar history was to be rewritten—let its be frank, was to be falsified—in order to eliminate references to Great Russian aggressions and to hide the facts of the real course of Tartar-Russian relations.What’s fascinating about the inclusion of this document is that it is apparently often invoked as a piece of anti-Fomenko evidence, by tying New Chronology in with older Russian-nationalist Soviet revisionism. So not only is it ironic that they’re citing a CIA document, of all things, but a CIA document often used to undermine the spiritual founder of the whole Tartaria ‘theory’ in the first place! But to return to the point, the fundamental issue is that it’s tendentious. This document from 1957 obviously is not going to be that informed on the dynamics of Central Asian ethnicity and history in the way that a modern scholar would be.
[similar judgement on Soviet rewriting of histories of Muslim areas to suit a pro-Russian agenda]
In a broader sense, what this document is supposed to prove is that Soviet coverups are why we don’t know about Tartaria. But if most of the evidence came from Western Europe to begin with, why would a Soviet coverup matter? Why wasn’t Tartarian history deployed as a counter-narrative during the Cold War?
Exhibit 4: ‘An 1855 Source’This is from a footnote in Sir George Cornwalle Lewis’ An Inquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History, citing a travelogue by Evariste Huc that had been published in French in 1850 and was soon translated into English. From the digitised version of of Huc’s book on Project Gutenberg (emphasis copied over from the thread):
Such remains of ancient cities are of no unfrequent occurrence in the deserts of Mongolia; but everything connected with their origin and history is buried in darkness. Oh, with what sadness does such a spectacle fill the soul! The ruins of Greece, the superb remains of Egypt,—all these, it is true, tell of death; all belong to the past; yet when you gaze upon them, you know what they are; you can retrace, in memory, the revolutions which have occasioned the ruins and the decay of the country around them. Descend into the tomb, wherein was buried alive the city of Herculaneum,—you find there, it is true, a gigantic skeleton, but you have within you historical associations wherewith to galvanize it. But of these old abandoned cities of Tartary, not a tradition remains; they are tombs without an epitaph, amid solitude and silence, uninterrupted except when the wandering Tartars halt, for a while, within the ruined enclosures, because there the pastures are richer and more abundant.There’s a paraphrase from Lewis as well, but you can just read it on the thread. The key thing here is that yes, there were abandoned settlements in the steppe. Why must this be indicative of a lost sedentary civilisation, and not instead the remnants of political capitals of steppe federations which were abandoned following those federations’ collapse? Places like Karakorum, Kubak Zar, Almaliq and Sarai were principally built around political functions, being centres for concentration of religious and ritual authority (especially monasteries) and stores of non-movable (or difficult to move) wealth. But individual examples of abandoned settlements are not evidence of broad patterns of settlement that came to be abandoned en masse. Indeed, the very fact that the cited shepherd calls the abandoned location ‘The Old Town’ in the singular implies just how uncommon such sites were – for any given region, there might really only be one of note.
Exhibit 5: Ethnic characteristics in artistic depictions of Chinggis and TimurI… don’t quite know what to make of these.
Today, we have certain appearance related stereotypes. I think we are very much off there. It looks like Tartary was multi-religious, and multi-cultural. One of the reasons I think so is the tremendous disparity between what leaders like Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, Timur aka Tamerlane looked like to the contemporary artists vs. the appearance attributed to them today.Ummm, what?
These are apparently what they look like today. These are ‘contemporary’ depictions of Chinggis:
As for Timur, we have:
We’ll get to Batur Khan in a moment because that’s its own kettle of worms. But can this user not recognise that artists tend to depict things in ways that are familiar? Of course white European depictions of Chinggis and Timur will tend to make them look like white Europeans, while East Asian depictions of Chinggis will tend to make him look Asian, and Middle Eastern depictions of Chinggis and Timur will make them look Middle Eastern. This doesn’t prove that ‘Tartaria’ was multicultural, in fact it you’d have an easier time using this ‘evidence’ to argue that Chinggis and Timur were shapeshifters who could change ethnicities at will!
Exhibit 6: Turkish sculpturesWhy this person thinks modern Turkish sculptures are of any use to anyone baffles me. The seven sculptures shown are of Batu Khan (founder of the ‘Golden Horde’/Jochid khanates), Timur, Bumin (founder of the First Turkic Khaganate), Ertugrul (father of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman empire), Babur (founder of the Mughal Empire), Attila the Hun, and Kutlug Bilge Khagan (founder of the Uyghur Khaganate). They are accompanied (except in the case of Ertugrul) by the dates of the empires/confederations that they founded – hence, for instance, Babur’s dates being 1526 to 1858, the lifespan of the Mughal Empire, or Timur’s being 1368 (which seems arbitrary) to 1507 (the fall of Herat to the Shaybanids). To quote the thread:
A few of them I do not know, but the ones I do look nothing like what I was taught at school. Also dates are super bizarre on those plaques.Again, Turkish sculptors make Turkic people look like Turks. Big surprise. And the dates are comprehensible if you just take a moment to think.
Do Turks know something we don't?Turkish, evidently.
Exhibit 7: A map from 1652 that the user can’t even read
The other reason why I think Tartary had to be multi-religious, and multi-cultural is its vastness during various moments in time. For example in 1652 Tartary appears to have control over the North America.https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1652-nova-totius-terrarum-orbis-geographica-ac-hydrographica-tabula_1-1-jpg.37277/
This speaks for itself.
The thread was later edited to include a link to a post on ‘Tartarians’ in North America made on 7 August 2018, but that’s beside the point here, read at your own leisure (if you can call it ‘leisure’). Except for the part where at one point he admits he can’t read Latin, and so his entire theory in that post is based on the appearance of the word ‘Tartarorum’ in an unspecified context on a map of North America.
Part 2: The Coverup
The official history is hiding a major world power which existed as late as the 19th century. Tartary was a country with its own flag, its own government and its own place on the map. Its territory was huge, but somehow quietly incorporated into Russia, and some other countries. This country you can find on the maps predating the second half of the 19th century.…Okay then.
Exhibit 8: Google Ngramshttps://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_ngram-jpg.37276/
This screenshot shows that the use of ‘Tartary’ and ‘Tartaria’ declined significantly over time. This is apparently supposed to surprise us. Or maybe it shows that we actually understand the region better…
Part 1a: Back to the existenceYou know, a common theme with historical conspiracy theories is how badly they’re laid out, in the literal sense of the layout of their documents and video content. Don’t make a header called ‘The Coverup’ and then only have one thing before jumping back to the evidence for the existence again.
Exhibit 9: A Table
Yet, some time in the 18th century Tartary Muskovite was the biggest country in the world: 3,050,000 square miles.https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_huge-13-jpg.37329/
I do not have enough palms to slap into my face. Do they not understand that this is saying how much of Tartary was owned… by foreign powers?
Exhibit 10: Book coversYou can look at the images on the thread itself but here’s a few highlights:
- 1654: Bellum Tartaricum, or the Conquest of China By the Invasion of the Tartars, who in the last seven years, have wholly subdued that empire
- 1670: Historia de la Conquista de la China por el Tartaro
- 1662: The Voyages and Travels of the Ambassadors of the Duke of Holstein, to the Great Duke of Muscovy, and the King of Persia… Containing a compleat History of Muscovy, Tartary, Persia, and Other Adjacent Countries…
There’s also three screenshots from books that aren’t even specifically named, so impossible to follow up. Clearly this is all we need.
Exhibit 11: MapsThe maps are the key think the Tartaria pushers use. All these maps showing ‘Grand Tartary’ or ‘Tartaria’ or what have you. There’s 20 of these here and you can look for yourselves, but the key thing is: why do these people assume that this referred to a single state entity? Because any of these maps that include the world more generally will also present large parts of Africa in generic terms, irrespective of actual political organisation in these regions. And many of the later maps clearly show the tripartite division of the region into ‘Chinese Tartary’, ‘Russian Tartary’, and ‘Independent Tartary’, which you think would be clear evidence that most of this region was controlled by, well, the Chinese (really, the Manchus) and the Russians. And many of these maps aren’t even maps of political organisation, but geographical space. See how many lump all of mainland Southeast Asia into ‘India’. Moreover, the poor quality of the mapping should give things away. This one for instance is very clear on the Black Sea coast, but the Caspian is a blob, and moreover, a blob that’s elongated along the wrong axis! They’re using Western European maps as an indicator of Central Asian realities in the most inept way possible, and it would be sad if it weren’t so hilarious. The fact that the depictions of the size of Tartaria are incredibly inconsistent also seems not to matter.
Exhibit 12: The Tartarian LanguageThere’s an 1849 American newspaper article referring to the ‘Tartarian’ language, which is very useful thank you, and definitely not more reflective of American ignorance than actual linguistic reality.
The next one is more interesting, because it’s from a translation of some writing by a French Jesuit, referring to the writing of Manchu, and who asserted (with very little clear evidence) that it could be read in any direction. In April last year, Tartaria users [claimed to have stumbled on a dictionary of Tartarian and French](np.reddit.com/Tartaria/comments/bi3aph/tartarian_language_dictionary/) called the Dictionnaire Tartare-Mantchou-François. What they failed to realise is that the French generally called the Manchus ‘Tartare-Mantchou’, and this was in fact a Manchu-French dictionary. In other words, a [Tartare-Mantchou]-[François] dictionary, not a [Tartare]-[Mantchou]-[François] dictionary. It is quite plausible, in fact probable, that the ‘Tartarian’ referred to in the newspaper article was Manchu.
Exhibit 13: Genealogies of Tartarian Kings
Descended From GenghiscanReads the comment above this French chart. How the actual hell did OP not recognise that ‘Genghiscan’ is, erm, Genghis Khan? Is it that hard to understand that maybe, just maybe, ‘Tartars’ was what they called Mongols back in the day, and ‘Tartaria’ the Mongol empire and its remnants?
Exhibit 14: Ethnographic drawingsThese prove that there were people called Tartars, not that there was a state of Tartaria. NEXT
Exhibit 15: Tartaria’s alleged flagImages they provide include
Except there’s one problem. As any EU4 player will tell you, that’s the flag of the Khanate of Kazan. And while they can trot out a few 18th and 19th century charts showing the apparent existence of a Tartarian naval flag, the inconvenient fact that Tartaria would have been landlocked seems not to get in the way. To be sure, their consistent inclusion is odd, given the non-existence of Tartary as a country, and moreover its landlocked status. It seems plausible that the consistent similarity of the designs is just a result of constant copying and poor checking, but on its own it means relatively little.
Exhibit 16: 19th-century racismhttps://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/flags_of_all_nations_1865-mongolian-1-jpg.37369/
That I think speaks for itself.
Exhibit 17: Flags of Moscow on one particular chart
It is also worth mentioning that in the British Flag Table of 1783, there are three different flags listed as a flag of the Tsar of Moscow. There is also an Imperial Flag of Russia as well as multiple naval flags. And all of them are proceeded by a flag of the Viceroy of Russia.By that logic, the Royal Navy ran Britain because the Royal Navy ensigns precede the Union Jack. It’s simply a conscious decision to show the flags of individuals before the flags of states. The ‘Viceroy’ (unsure what the original Russian title would be) and ‘Czar’ of Muscovy would presumably be, well, the Emperor of Russia anyway, so as with the British section where the Royal Standard and the flags of naval officers came first, the same seems true of Russia. Also, as a side note, the placement of the USA at the end, after the Persians, the Mughals and ‘Tartarians’, is a fun touch.
Significance of the Viceroy is in the definition of the term. A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. Our official history will probably say that it was the Tsar of Russia who would appoint a viceroy of Moscow. I have reasons to doubt that.No.
Why is the flag of the Viceroy of Moscow positioned prior to any other Russian flag? Could it be that the Viceroy of Moscow was superior to its Czar, and was "supervising" how this Tartarian possession was being run?
Part 3: 1812This, this is where it gets really bonkers. A key part of this post is arguing that Napoleon’s invasion of Russia was a cover story for a joint invasion against Tartaria gone horrendously wrong. All the stops are being pulled out here.
There is a growing opinion in Russia that French invasion of Russia played out according to a different scenario. The one where Tsar Alexander I, and Napoleon were on the same side. Together they fought against Tartary. Essentially France and Saint Petersburg against Moscow (Tartary). And there is a strong circumstantial evidence to support such a theory.Oh yes, we’re going there.
Questions to Answer:He didn’t, he was trying to attack the Russian army. (credit to dandan_noodles).
1. Saint Petersburg was the capitol of Russia. Yet Napoleon chose to attack Moscow. Why?
2. It appears that in 1912 there was a totally different recollection of the events of 1812. How else could you explain commemorative 1912 medals honoring Napoleon?Because it’s a bit of an in-your-face to Napoleon for losing so badly?
And specifically the one with Alexander I, and Napoleon on the same medal. The below medal says something similar to, "Strength is in the unity: will of God, firmness of royalty, love for homeland and people"Yeah, it’s showing Alexander I beating Napoleon, and a triumphant double-headed Russian eagle above captured French standards. Also, notice how Alexander is in full regalia, while Napoleon’s is covered up by his greatcoat?
3. Similarity between Russian and French uniforms. There are more different uniforms involved, but the idea remains, they were ridiculously similar.Ah yes, because fashions in different countries always develop separately, and never get influenced by each other.
How did they fight each other in the dark?With difficulty, presumably.
Basically, he’s saying that this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
Is too similar to this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
To be coincidental.
OK, whatever. Here’s where it gets interesting:
There was one additional combat asset officially available to Russians in the war of 1812. And that was the Militia. It does appear that this so-called Militia, was in reality the army of Tartary fighting against Napoleon and Alexander I.Russian VolunteeMilitia Units... Tartarians?
Clearly this man has never encountered the concept of a cossack, an opelchenie, or, erm, a GREATCOAT.
4. Russian nobility in Saint Petersburg spoke French well into the second half of the 19th century. The general explanation was, that it was the trend of time and fashion. Google contains multiple opinions on the matter. * Following the same logic, USA, Britain and Russia should've picked up German after the victory in WW2.Clearly never heard of the term lingua franca then.
5. This one I just ran into: 19th-century fans were totally into a Napoleon/Alexander romancehttps://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/treaties_of_tilsit_miniature_-france-_1810s-_side_a-jpg.37314/
It is true that after the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon wrote to his wife, Josephine, that
I am pleased with [Emperor] Alexander; he ought to be with me. If he were a woman, I think I should make him my mistress.But Napoleon’s ‘honeymoon period’ with Russia following the Treaty of Tilsit should not be seen as indicative of a permanent Napoleonic affection for Russia. Notably, Napoleon’s war with Russia didn’t just end in 1812. How are the Tartaria conspiracists going to explain the War of the Sixth Coalition, when Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops drove the French out of Germany? Did the bromance suddenly stop because of 1812? Or, is it more reasonable to see 1812 as the end result of the bromance falling apart?
ConclusionsSo there you have it, Tartaria in all its glorious nonsensicalness. Words cannot capture how massively bonkers this entire thing is. And best of all, I hardly needed my own sources because so much of it is just a demonstration of terrible reading comprehension. Still, if you want to actually learn about some of the history of Inner Eurasia, see below:
- The Cambridge History of Inner Asia – 2 volumes so far, covering up to 1886. Not really a single contiguous narrative, as each chapter has its own individual author, but a good general coverage.
- Scott C. Levi, The Bukharan Crisis: A Connected History of 18th Century Central Asia (2020) – A book about actual Central Asian history, focussing on the global and local factors that led to the weakening and collapse of the Chinggisid state in Bukhara and the rise of the Uzbek-led Emirate. Also a very good historiographical examination of lay understandings of the period.
- Mark C. Elliott, ‘The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies’, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2000) – A discussion of conceptions of Manchuria by Manchu, Chinese, Japanese and European cartographers and geographers, with the section on European geographers being important for getting at the ‘Tartary’ aspect.
- David Christian, ‘Inner Eurasia as a Unit of World History’, Journal of World History, Vol. 5, No. 2 (1994) – A somewhat older view, presenting Inner Eurasia as a distinct unit in world history, but largely in terms of effects on the rest of Eurasia.
- Nicola di Cosmo, ‘State Formation and Periodization in Inner Asian History’, Journal of World History, Vol.10, No.1 (1999) – A partial response to Christian, offering an alternate periodisation based more on the internal dynamics of nomadic state formations and stressing viewing Inner Asian history in terms of those internal dynamics, rather than relegating it to a subordinate place in the histories of ‘Outer Eurasian’, sedentary states.
- Konstantin Sheiko, ‘Lomonosov’s Bastards: Anatolii Fomenko, Pseudo-History and Russia’s Search for a Post-Communist Identity’ [PhD Thesis] (2004) – Specifically deconstructs Fomenko’s version of Tartaria.